(Within Limits Integrated Assessment Model)
WILIAM starts simulating in 2005 and generally simulates until 2060, although the simulation horizon can be extended to 2100. WILIAM is a multi-regional model developed for 9 regions (EU27, UK, USMCA, China, Russia, India, EASOC, LATAM and LROW).
The ultimate goal is to apply WILIAM to explore the social, economic and environmental implications of long-term socio-ecological transition pathways at both global and regional scales, taking into account planetary boundaries as well as socio-economic constraints. The validation of the models has been carried out following several of the usual model validation procedures in system dynamics.